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Women's Health Care Physicians




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Given that chapters, academic books, and technical reports typically are not subjected to the same speciific standards as journal articles, the committee gave the greatest credence to such sources that reported research employing rigorous methods, were authored by well-established researchers, and were generally consistent with scholarly consensus on the current state of knowledge.

With respect to articles describing current health issues in the LGBT community, the committee attempted to limit its review to these articles published since In the area of transgender populations, however, much of the most current research was conducted prior to and is cited throughout the report. Likewise, in the case of history and theory, the committee reviewed and cites older literature. When evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, the committee considered factors affecting the generalizability of studies, including sample size, sample source, sample composition, recruitment methods, and response rate. The committee also considered the study design, saturation the point at which new information ceases to emergeand other relevant factors.

In some cases, the committee decided that a study with sample limitations was important; in such cases, these limitations and limits on the extent to which the findings can be generalized are explicitly acknowledged. The inclusion of case studies was kept to a minimum given their limited generalizability.

In cases in which no U. This was frequently the case for research involving transgender people. Only English-language articles were considered. The committee Grooup papers whose xpecific employed statistical methods for analyzing Grlup, as well as qualitative research that did not speicfic statistical analysis. For papers that included statistical analysis, the committee evaluated whether the analysis was appropriate and conducted properly. For papers reporting qualitative research, the committee evaluated whether the data were appropriately analyzed and interpreted. The committee does not present magnitudes of differences, which lesbkan be determined by consulting individual studies.

In lesbbian cases, the committee used secondary sources such as reports. However, it always referred back to the original citations to evaluate the evidence. Conceptual Speckfic In understanding the health of LGBT populations, GGroup frameworks can be used to examine how multiple identities and structural arrangements intersect to influence health care access, health status, and health outcomes. This section provides an overview of each of the conceptual frameworks used lrsbian this study. First, recognizing that there are a number of specifid to present the information contained Lssbian this report, the committee found spedific helpful to apply a life-course perspective.

A life-course perspective provides a useful framework for the above-noted varying health needs and experiences of an LGBT individual over the course of his or her life. Central to a life-course framework Cohler and Hammack, ; Elder, is the notion that the experiences of individuals at every stage of their life inform subsequent experiences, as individuals are constantly revisiting issues encountered at earlier points in the life course. This interrelationship among experiences starts before birth and in fact, before conception. A life-course framework has four key dimensions: Linked lives—Lives are interdependent; social ties, including immediate family and other relationships, influence individuals' perspective on life.

Life events as part of an overall trajectory—Significant experiences have a differential impact at various stages of the life course. Personal decisions—Individuals make choices influenced by the social contexts in which they live e. Historical context—A historical perspective provides a context for understanding the forces and factors that have shaped an individual's experiences; those born within the same historical period may experience events differently from those born earlier or later. From the perspective of LGBT populations, these four dimensions have particular salience because together they provide a framework for considering a range of issues that shape these individuals' experiences and their health disparities.

Like other minority groups, these caricatures are intended to ridicule this marginalized group. Inwhen American comedian Ellen DeGeneres came out of the closet on her popular sitcom, many sponsors, such as the Wendy's fast food chain, pulled their advertising. As more celebrities came out, more shows developed, such as the show The L Word. These depictions of the LGBT community have been controversial, but beneficial for the community. Many LGBT organizations exist to represent and defend the gay community. Roughly three-quarters of bisexual respondents to the Pew Research survey are women.

By contrast, gay men outnumber lesbians by about two-to-one among survey respondents. Bisexuals are far more likely than either gay men or lesbians to be married, in part because a large majority of those in committed relationships have partners of the opposite sex and thus are able to marry legally. Also, two-thirds of bisexuals say they either already have or want children, compared with about half of lesbians and three-in-ten gay men. Across the LGBT population, more say bisexual women and lesbians are accepted by society than say this about gay men, bisexual men or transgender people. Transgender adults are viewed as less accepted by society than other LGBT groups: Surveys of the general public show that societal acceptance is on the rise.

Lesbian specific Group

More Americans now say they favor same-sex marriage and fewer say homosexuality should be discouraged, compared with a decade ago. A new Pew Research Center analysis shows that among the general public, knowing someone who is gay or lesbian is linked with greater acceptance of homosexuality and support for same-sex marriage. Still, a significant share of the public believes that homosexuality should be discouraged and that same-sex marriage should not be legal. Much of this resistance is rooted in deeply held religious attitudes, such as the belief that engaging in homosexual behavior is a sin. And the public is conflicted about how the rising share of gays and lesbians raising children is affecting society.

Age, Gender and Race The survey finds that the attitudes and experiences of younger adults into the LGBT population differ in a variety of ways from those of older adults, perhaps a reflection of the more accepting social milieu in which younger adults have come of age. For example, younger gay men and lesbians are more likely to have disclosed their sexual orientation somewhat earlier in life than have their older counterparts. Some of this difference may be attributable to changing social norms, but some is attributable to the fact that the experiences of young adults who have not yet identified as being gay or lesbian but will do so later in life cannot be captured in this survey.

In addition women, whether lesbian or bisexual, are significantly more likely than men to either already have children or to say they want to have children one day. While the same-sex marriage issue has dominated news coverage of the LGBT population in recent years, it is only one of several top priority issues identified by survey respondents. When asked in an open-ended question to name the national public figures most responsible for advancing LGBT rights, President Barack Obama, who announced last year that he had changed his mind and supports gay marriage, tops the list along with comedian and talk show host Ellen DeGeneres, who came out as a lesbian in and has been a leading advocate for the LGBT population ever since then.

For the most part LGBT adults are in broad agreement on which institutions they consider friendly to people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. And they offer opinions on a range of public policy issues that are in sync with the Democratic and liberal tilt to their partisanship and ideology.

In round, cervical dysplasia has been unable in great who have not soon had intercourse with men In brands in which the city charters only to english, gay, and related populations, the possible LGB pirates more.

Self and Country LGBT adults and the general public are also lesian different in the ways they evaluate their personal happiness and the overall direction of the country. Primary care for lesbians and bisexual women. Am Fam Physician Group lesbian specific Health care of lesbian and bisexual women. The health of sexual minorities: Human papillomavirus-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia following lesbian sex. Lesbian and bisexual health. Suicide risk and spefific for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Education Development Center, Inc. Elevated substance use among lesbian and bisexual women: Subst Use Misuse ; Alcohol, tobacco and other drug problems and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender LGBT individuals.

Risk Group lesbian specific reassault in abusive female same-sex relationships. Am J Public Health ; Sexual orientation, parental support, and health during the transition to young adulthood. J Youth Adolesc ; J Child Adolesc Group lesbian specific Nurs ; Code of professional ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Currently there is very little input about anti-discrimination and sexual orientation or gender identity in the social work degree or in social care training Grup and Hafford- Letchfield The Social Work Reform Board overarching professional Gdoup for social workers includes the recognition of diversity and Grou antidiscriminatory principles in practice SWRB Identifying and commissioning for older sppecific disabled transgender people Lancashire County Council found that the percentage of older and disabled lesbiwn people living in its area was equal to the national average.

It therefore estimated that a significant number of transgender people in its area who were at risk of, or already had, illnesses and disabilities associated with getting older might not be accessing the care services they needed for fear of prejudice and discrimination. An organisation supporting transgender people provided training for staff across Lancashire. It included myth-busting and raising awareness of issues specific to transgender people. Staff are much more confident in supporting disabled and older transgender people as a result. EHRC What is personalisation? Personalisation means recognising people as individuals who have strengths and preferences and putting them at the centre of their own care and support.

The traditional service-led approach has often meant that people have not been able to shape the kind of support they need, or received the right help. Personalised approaches like self directed support and personal budgets involve enabling people to identify their own needs and make choices about how and when they are supported to live their lives. People need access to information, advocacy and advice so they can make informed decisions. Among men reporting same-sex sexual partners, the odds of experiencing an anxiety disorder were 1. Among women reporting same-sex sexual partners, the odds of experiencing an anxiety disorder were 1.

Participants also had higher odds of reporting suicide symptoms. Among men reporting same-sex sexual partners, the odds of having thought about suicide in their lifetimes were 2. Among women reporting same-sex sexual partners, the odds of having thought about suicide in their lifetimes were 2. Cochran and Mays [11] studied men with same-sex partners, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and found a markedly higher prevalence of suicide symptoms during their lifetimes than men reporting only female partners. Among men reporting any male sex partners during their lifetimes, Suicidal ideation was described by Suicide attempts were reported by However, research on this population and the prevalence of psychiatric conditions is in its early phases, and some studies have found similar rates of psychiatric hospitalizations, and even somewhat lower rates of psychotic disorders among LGBT people compared with the general population.

Although these possibilities are certainly worthy of further study, pursuing them is beyond the scope of this article. In mainstream mental health settings, they often feel compelled to hide their sexual orientation or gender identity; conversely, in the LGBT community, mention of their mental health status is often unwelcome. In addition, most programs and practitioners seem to assume that LGBT people do not exist, and that all their clients are heterosexual. LGBT patients say they are often made to feel that their care providers neither understand nor like them, and that any exploration or expression of their sexual or gender identity is further evidence that they are mentally ill.

Moreover, especially in inpatient units and day programs, other consumers are frequently derogatory or even threatening toward LGBT patients.


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