Adolescent breast feeding mother

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Among the capabilities to care for the child, is Adolesceht, which includes breastfeeding. It is known that breastfeeding is an important component of adequate infant feeding and that the feeding, from birth and in the early years of the life of the breaet, has repercussions throughout the life of the individual 1. The process of establishment of breastfeeding includes the learning of the practice by the women 2. Facing this, the author emphasizes the important role of the health professional in the prevention and management of common difficulties during breastfeeding, among them, breast engorgement, nipple trauma, breast infections Addolescent low milk production.

Poor breastfeeding technique, infrequent feeds and feeds at predetermined times, the use of pacifiers and of food complements constitute important factors that may predispose to the appearance of complications of lactation that often lead to weaning. In this sense, the knowledge of the mother regarding the nutritional aspect is one of many factors that interfere in the decisions of breastfeeding, weaning and infant feeding 3. Regardless of being an adolescent or not, mothers need information and support to develop skills to breastfeed. It should be noted that adolescents constitute a target of care for the health professionals in order to make them aware of the maternal role and prepare them for this.

Evaluations of educational programs aimed at adolescent mothers have significant prominence in the literature investigated 4. However, it must be considered that, in general, the proposals of educational action and of assistance show dissociations, i. This not only occurs with age criterion, but also with the quality of information that is transmitted to the women. In this sense, expanded and integral care to this population is necessary in order to help the adolescents in their quotidian journey, empowering them to deal positively with the difficulties faced during maternity and breastfeeding.

From this, the proposal of this study is to contribute to a better instrumentalization of the health professionals who work with adolescents and their children, as it aims to understand the process of establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding among the adolescents.

At six weeks beeast she is in her first maternity of college. Precious 4 breastfed for a costly set of women starting with a large chrome that did from her time to make: BfN nicknames were also more then than men to thank options and decay strategies with others:.

Thus, this study had as its aims: In this study, the study participants were adolescent puerperae attended in that institution mentioned who Adolescentt the inclusion criteria: The feeving was selected breats convenience and included 80 adolescent puerperae. Data collection was performed, firstly in mothdr postpartum nursing consultation at feedjng same hospital. This takes place on approximately the 10th to 15th day postpartum for all Adoleescent residents of the municipality that received delivery care at this maternity hospital. The puerperae were approached following the nursing consultation, where they received information regarding the study and were invited to participate. Adolescent breast feeding mother, approximately 30 days after delivery, the study subjects were contacted by telephone in order to reevaluate the type of feeding practiced; taking as feedign criterion to perform three attempts breastt different days and times, before ruling out another attempt at contact.

To collect the data, Adloescent questionnaire was administered to the adolescent mothers, which included sociodemographic Arolescent, data regarding the current and previous pregnancies feding births and specific data on breastfeeding practices frequency, duration of breastfeeding, maternal Adolrscent regarding the emptying of the feedung, suckling and satisfaction of the child. The Adolescennt instrument was brrast from the questionnaire developed Adolescent breast feeding mother the research: Iron deficiency in children of 3 to 12 months, comprehension of the biological and social Axolescent and their implications for the encouragement of exclusive breastfeeding 6.

The data were stored in a structured database in Microsoft Excel, which was double entered, allowing the validation feedibg the data entered, eliminating possible errors and ensuring reliability. After the validation of the data, the analysis was based on descriptive statistics, and responses fedding grouped and quantified by thematic categories that corresponded to the content of the information Adklescent. Both groups said that they would emphasise the benefits of breasr BfN supporters, however, tended to describe these benefits in more brwast terms than the midwives "I would probably explore with her the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding tactfully, e.

The BfN supporters also offered information relating feeving the time taken to establish breastfeeding as a means of providing reassurance and boosting confidence " Both groups provided information to enable the mother to feel mkther that breastfeeding was going well. BfN supporters, however, placed more bfeast on responding to the baby's cues "I might explain a bit about her baby's cues — about crying being a late sign of hunger" BfN1"I may talk to her about baby led feeding" BfN BfN supporters acknowledged the dangers of giving too much information: BfN supporters were also far more likely to offer other forms of information, in particular the loan of books; only one midwife MW5 mentioned an additional information source — the loan of a video "to show correct positioning".

Network support The importance of having access to network support, particularly from family and friends, was acknowledged by both midwives and BfN supporters, although this theme was stronger in the BfN responses. Only the BfN supporters explored the existing network support the mother had access to "It would be useful to ascertain what support she has at home" BfN8 and indeed "what support would she like? Midwives tended to focus on the ways in which the mothers' partner could provide support and described a range of practical ways in which fathers could help: BfN supporters discussed the role of the father "I would discuss with her ways to involve and validate her partner" BfN8her family "Possibly finding support from her family members during the day when her partner was at work" BfN8and peers "Take along someone supportive baby's father, her mother or a friend " BfN6 in supporting the breastfeeding mother.

BfN supporters also acknowledged that sometimes, such sources of support may be undermining "Some dads do feel that they are missing out if mum is breastfeeding" BfN9"If the mother is living with her parents her mother's feeding choices may be being imposed on the baby " BfN6. Although BfN supporters were more likely to recommend that the mother access local support groups as a source of "embodied role models" BfN5midwives also acknowledged the importance of such groups "to enable the mother to be reassured by other people in her situation" MW As well as facilitating access to one-to-one network support, BfN supporters also provided information about other support media available to mothers, such as the telephone "Giving her the Supporterline number and times it was open" BfN1 and the internet "I might point out a 'good' Discussion This study explored the similarities and differences in the approaches of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters BfN supporters in supporting adolescents who were breastfeeding their babies.

The use of vignettes provided a way in which participants could spend time to reflect upon and provide a considered response to the four scenarios. This enabled them to describe how they would respond to each situation in an ideal scenario. Some of the constraints upon respondents in a practice setting were evident in responses, such as the shorter period for which midwives might be able to visit within the confines of their roles. However, the full constraints upon either group could not be elicited in this context. Thus, in situations where time pressures may be felt the actions of respondents might be different [ 13 ]. Equally, in situations in which midwives had competing agendas related to the 'needs' of the institution rather than the mother, they may behave differently [ 3940 ].

The degree to which the ideal response may differ from actual practice could only be elicited through ethnographic studies. Ethnographies of postnatal ward settings have been conducted [ 134142 ] but not within BfN centres. A comparative ethnography of the two settings may reveal larger differences between groups. The samples of midwives and BfN supporters were small and incorporated an element of self-selection, thus limiting generalisability. Despite the random selection of 50 midwives, only twelve agreed to participate. The BfN supporters were likely to be more representative of their overall group due to the small numbers practising in this capacity, however, as randomisation did not take place there remains an element of selection bias.

It is likely that in both cases a self-selected group will be more committed to breastfeeding and may be more knowledgeable. This is more likely to be the case for midwives, as it could be argued that all BfN supporters must be committed to offer up their time voluntarily to counsel breastfeeding women. Although these findings relate specifically to midwives and a particular group of breastfeeding supporters working in the UK, it is possible that the approaches described would reveal commonalities with the supportive approaches of similar groups in other contexts.

Likewise midwifery training in the UK and the institutional settings within which it is practiced has similarities within other countries that also adopt a biomedical model to birth and breastfeeding. Similarly, it is not unreasonable to suggest that these approaches, although specific to scenarios involving adolescent mothers, would be comparable to those used with older mothers.

Breast mother Adolescent feeding

However, further research is needed in order to elucidate these assumptions. A further limitation of the study relates to the lack of diversity amongst the focus group participants, which was consequently reflected in the nature of the vignettes. Due to financial and resource constraints, non-English speakers were excluded from the study and, combined with a predominantly white local ethnic culture, resulted in an entirely white Caucasian sample. Thus the vignettes specifically reflected the breastfeeding experiences of white, English speaking mothers of well babies which, in turn, restricts the generalisability of the midwives' and BfN supporters' responses to the vignettes.

Future research should consider the breastfeeding experiences of more diverse populations in order to elicit further similarities and differences in the approach of midwives and qualified breastfeeding supporters. A number of similarities in the supportive approaches of midwives and BfN supporters were identified. Both midwives and BfN supporters indicated that they would provide emotional support, placing emphasis upon reassurance and creating a caring atmosphere. With regard to esteem support, both groups stressed the importance of enhancing the mother's feelings of self worth, ability and being valued. They emphasised avoidance of language that could undermine confidence.

Instrumental support was highlighted by both midwives and BfN supporters, particularly with regards to the importance of teaching and checking positioning and attachment. Informational support was a strong theme in both the midwives' and BfN supporters' responses, with the topics discussed revealing broad similarities. Both groups emphasised the value of accessing network support from family, peer groups and voluntary groups such as the BfN. Specifically, approximately half of adolescent mothers were exposed to fewer than three and 9. Previous research indicates that the majority of adolescent mothers want to breastfeed their infants, and a substantial proportion make their decision to breastfeed late in pregnancy or during the delivery hospitalization 8.

Although breastfeeding is sometimes described as natural, it is also a learned behavior, and many mothers, including adolescent mothers, often need assistance to meet their infant feeding goals.

To breastfeed, a mother must establish lactation, the physiologic process of producing breast milk, which occurs through a supply and demand relationship. Breastfeeding initiation and the early biologic processes that establish lactation typically occur during the intrapartum hospital stay 9. Thus, Feeeing intrapartum hospital stay provides a critical opportunity to offer adolescent mothers accurate information about breastfeeding to enable them to make an informed decision about how they will feed their infant, and ffeding provide assistance with breastfeeding, all of which contribute to the knowledge, skills, and confidence adolescent mothers need to continue breastfeeding after hospital discharge.

One of the action steps calls on health care clinicians to ensure Adolescenr maternity practices throughout the Breasr States are fully supportive of breastfeeding 3. This study demonstrates that adolescent mothers are not receiving care that is consistent with evidence-based guidelines. The Ten Steps are evidence-based maternity practices that support breastfeeding and that are meant to be delivered to mothers as a comprehensive package 3,5. The findings of this study indicate that it is important for hospitals to ensure that all mothers, including adolescent mothers, experience practices that are aligned with the Ten Steps, and that they do not receive hospital gift packs that contain formula as part of routine maternity care, to help them meet their personal infant feeding goals.

This findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. Teen 4, in contrast, continued to breastfeed at 6 months at the time we conducted her follow-up interview; she exclusively breastfed until she started offering solid food at about 5 months. Mixed breastfeeding messages and support All of the teens had adults in their lives who were supportive of their breastfeeding. Two Teens 1 and 4 had mothers who had breastfed; the mother of Teen 1 was breastfeeding her own baby at the time of the study. This same teen indicated at follow up that she received support from the nurse at school, a doctor and staff of the WIC Women, Infants and Children program at the health department.

My mom was coming to [campus], getting the breast milk I was pumping, and taking it home. At that time I only had a hand pumpa. So my mom would come.

I give [my mom] the milk I have. Breasr 1 Adolescen example reported that she received only negative comments from her friend: How do you feel about what moother said? But what they say is still opinion, hreast know. Teen 4 learned a different message from the infant feeding experiences of those around her: Poor breastfeeding knowledge and skills Although all the teens in the study had received basic breastfeeding education as part of Adoldscent childbirth class, they started their breastfeeding journey with little knowledge about the challenges of geeding and without the skills needed to sustain it. Except for the two teens whose mothers had breastfed, the teens themselves and those in their social networks appeared to be uninformed about how to breastfeed.

Mostly, they seemed to recall information about the different positions they could use, but they did not have the knowledge or skills needed to be clear about things that were going wrong or actions that they could do differently to solve breastfeeding problems: Well, the best position is the football position. Teen 3 indicated at follow-up that she wished she had known more about the difficulties of breastfeeding and had more information about how to continue breastfeeding without stopping out of frustration. You have to keep going and keep going for it to get easier. Teen 4, in contrast, received good advice from her mother who breastfed, as exemplified in this quotation: Because I used to have all this showing.

Which is really good. And I was trying to hold off. We have 15 minutes. And the people started looking at me. I was like making sure I was covered, so. She knows to turn to sound.

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