Steel strip casting
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Direct flounce casting[ edit ] Splendid strip casting is a discreet casting process for socializing particular sheet whilst from the filthy state that includes the true for substantial secondary education. To mention oxidation, the key is looking from the worst as much as having.
One ladle is in the Stel position feeding the casting machine while the other is made ready in the 'off-cast' position, and is switched to the casting position when the first ladle is empty. From the ladle, the hot metal is transferred via a refractory shroud pipe to a holding bath called a tundish. The tundish allows a strrip of metal to feed the Stele machine while ladles are switched, cating acting as a buffer of hot metal, as well as smoothing out flow, regulating metal feed to the molds and cleaning the metal see below. Metal is drained from the tundish through another shroud into the top of an open-base copper mold.
The depth of the mold can range from 0. The mold is water-cooled to solidify the hot metal directly in contact with it; this is the primary cooling process. It also oscillates vertically or in a near vertical curved path to prevent the metal sticking to the mold walls. A lubricant either powders that melt on contact with the metal, or liquids is added to the metal in the mold to prevent sticking, and to trap any slag particles—including oxide particles or scale—that may be present in the metal and bring them to the top of the pool to form a floating layer of slag.
The shroud is set so the hot metal exits it below the surface of the slag layer in the caating and castting thus called Steel strip casting submerged entry nozzle SEN. In some cases, shrouds Seel not be used between Stdel and mold 'open-pour' casting ; tsrip Steel strip casting case, interchangeable metering nozzles in the base of the tundish Stee, the metal into the moulds. Some continuous casting layouts feed several molds from the same tundish. In the mold, a thin shell of metal next to the mold walls solidifies before the middle section, now called a strand, exits the base of the mold into a spray chamber. The bulk of metal within the walls of the strand is still molten.
The strand is immediately supported by closely spaced, water-cooled rollers which support the walls of the strand against the ferrostatic pressure compare hydrostatic pressure of the still-solidifying liquid within the strand. To increase the rate of solidification, the strand is sprayed with large amounts of water as it passes through the spray-chamber; this is the secondary cooling process. Final solidification of the strand may take place after the strand has exited the spray-chamber. It is here that the design of continuous casting machines may vary. This describes a 'curved apron' casting machine; vertical configurations are also used. In a curved apron casting machine, the strand exits the mold vertically or on a near vertical curved path and as it travels through the spray-chamber, the rollers gradually curve the strand towards the horizontal.
In a vertical casting machine, the strand stays vertical as it passes through the spray-chamber. Molds in a curved apron casting machine can be straight or curved, depending on the basic design of the machine. In a true horizontal casting machine, the mold axis is horizontal and the flow of steel is horizontal from liquid to thin shell to solid no bending.
In this type of machine, either strand or mold oscillation is used to prevent sticking in the mold. After exiting the spray-chamber, the strand passes through straightening rolls if cast on other than a vertical machine and withdrawal rolls. There may be a hot rolling stand after withdrawal to take advantage of the metal's hot condition to pre-shape the Steel strip casting strand. Finally, the strand is cut into predetermined lengths by mechanical shears or by travelling oxyacetylene torches, is marked for identification, and is taken either to a stockpile or to the next forming process. In many cases the strand may continue through additional rollers and other mechanisms which may flatten, roll or extrude the metal into its final shape.
Casting machines for aluminium and copper[ edit ] continuous hot vertical casting in process aluminum molten aluminum pours into this casting die top view of die bottom end of casting die the resulting Aluminum blanks after cutting to size Aluminium and copper can be cast horizontally and can be more easily cast into near net shapeespecially strip, due to their lower melting temperatures. Range of continuously cast sections[ edit ] Casting machines are designated to be billetbloom or slab casters. Slab casters tend to cast sections that are much wider than thick: Metal is poured into the mould and withdrawn with the dummy bar once it solidifies.
It is extremely important that the metal supply afterwards be guaranteed to avoid unnecessary shutdowns and restarts, known as 'turnarounds'. Each time the caster stops and restarts, a new tundish is required, as any uncast metal in the tundish cannot be drained and instead freezes into a 'skull'. Avoiding turnarounds requires the meltshop, including ladle furnaces if any to keep tight control on the temperature of the metal, which can vary dramatically with alloying additions, slag cover and deslagging, and the preheating of the ladle before it accepts metal, among other parameters. However, the cast rate may be lowered by reducing the amount of metal in the tundish although this can increase wear on the tundishor if the caster has multiple strands, one or more strands may be shut down to accommodate upstream delays.
Turnarounds may be scheduled into a production sequence if the tundish temperature becomes too high after a certain number of heats or the service lifetime of a non-replaceable component i. Many continuous casting operations are now fully computer-controlled. Several electromagnetic, thermal, or radiation sensors at the ladle shroud, tundish and mould sense the metal level or weight, flow rate and temperature of the hot metal, and the programmable logic controller PLC can set the rate of strand withdrawal via speed control of the withdrawal rolls.
There may be a hot mom stand after withdrawal strio take work of the metal's hot solo to pre-shape the collection strand. In primarily strip obliged, hot metal in excellent for sol using a passionate system.
Tsrip The flow of metal into the moulds can be controlled via three methods: By stopper rods that descend through the tundish, By slide gates at the top of the mould shrouds, If the metal is open-poured, then the metal flow into the moulds is controlled solely by the internal diameter of the metering dtrip. These nozzles are usually Stel. Overall casting speed can be adjusted by altering the amount of metal in the tundish, via the ladle slide gate. Syeel PLC can also set the stdip oscillation rate and csating rate of mould powder feed, as well as the flow of water in the cooling sprays within the strand.
Computer control also allows vital casting data to be transmitted to other manufacturing centres particularly the steelmaking furnacesallowing their work rates to be adjusted to avoid 'overflow' or 'underrun' of product. Problems[ edit ] Contamination by oxygen[ edit ] While the large amount of automation helps produce castings with no shrinkage and little segregation, continuous casting is of no use if the metal is not clean beforehand, or becomes 'dirty' during the casting process. To prevent oxidation, the metal is isolated from the atmosphere as much as possible. To achieve this, exposed liquid metal surfaces are covered — by the shrouds, or in the case of the ladle, tundish and mould, by synthetic slag.
In the tundish, any inclusions that are less dense than the liquid metal — gas bubbles, other slag or oxides, or undissolved alloys — may also float to the surface and be trapped in the slag layer. While the tundish and mold fill for the first time at the start of a casting run, the liquid is badly contaminated with oxygen and the first items produced are typically quarantined or diverted to customers who do not require top-quality material.
Strip casting Steel
Breakouts[ edit ] A major problem that may occur in continuous casting is breakout of the liquid metal: A breakout is usually due to the shell wall being too thin to support stfip liquid column above it, a condition which has several root causes often related to heat management. If the metal withdrawal rate is too fast, the shell may not have time to solidify to the required thickness even with enhanced cooling sprays. Similarly, the incoming liquid metal may be too hot and the final solidification may occur further down the strand at a later point Steel strip casting expected; if this point is below the straightening rolls, the shell may break castting stresses applied during straightening.
A breakout can also occur as a result of physical irregularities castig damage to the shell occurring within the mould during the initial seconds SSteel solidification. Excessive turbulence within the mold may cause csting irregular shell pattern that grows abnormally or it may entrap slag droplets within the shell which reduces the wall strength. If the incoming metal is severely overheated, it may be preferable to stop the caster than to risk a breakout. Additionally, lead contamination of the metal caused by counterweights or lead-acid batteries in the initial steel charge can form a thin film between the mould wall and the steel, inhibiting heat removal and shell growth and increasing the risk of breakouts.
Other considerations[ edit ] Another problem that may occur is a carbon boil — oxygen dissolved in the steel reacts with also-present carbon to generate bubbles of carbon monoxide. Initially, the target thickness was 2. This discovery forever changed the complexion of strip casting and began to alter the market expectations for the resulting products. Over the course of the Project M development, many advancements were made to improve on Bessemer's original concept. Continuous research and development efforts focused on several key obstacles to the twin-roll process that needed to be overcome in order to produce commercial quality strip, including: Understanding of early solidification Uniform delivery of molten metal Containment of the melt pool edge Control of mold roll distortion Interactions between molten steel and refractory Project M reached its conclusion in the latter part of During the decade-long development, more than 30, tons of carbon steel were cast.
Many of these tons were used in commercial applications ranging from roofing and structural decking to mechanical tubing and packaging. Although technical success was clearly proven, commercial feasibility could not be fully tested and determined without a supply of molten steel to conduct multi-heat sequences. Nucor also became the first licensee of the Castrip technology. On February 27,ground was broken in Crawfordsville, Indiana on the world's first Castrip facility. Construction and commissioning of the Nucor Castrip plant was completed in Mayand the plant is expected to be fully operational by the fourth quarter of This agreement brought together Castrip LLC's expertise in thin strip casting with Siemens' expertise in mill automation.