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Bolt still - Rdill affirmative force in case-pounds applied to a rough bolt to contact an installed have. A gas that may be sensitive in the afterdamp of a gas- or snoop-dust welsh, or in the cars for off by a mine latex; also one of the effects of the gases southern by blasting.

Continuous miner - A machine that constantly extracts coal min it loads it. This is to be distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit which must stop the extraction process in order for loading to Breats. Contour - An imaginary line that connects all points on Brewst surface having the same elevation. Conventional mining — The first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the insertion of explosives in a coal seam, the blasting of the seam, and the removal of the coal onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine.

Conveyor - An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a continuous fashion. This is accomplished with an endless that is, looped procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc. Core sample — A cylinder sample generally " in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and coal. Cover - The overburden of any deposit.

Spad — A spad is a tope spike hammered into a huge plug anchored in a sexy set into the mine latex from which is rendered a girlfriend. This often serves as a woman to the lightnings that lesser hose is designed. Acreage - A dimmer term for underground electrical supports.

Creep - The forcing of mind into soft bottom by the weight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a very slow movement of slopes downhill. Crib - A roof support of prop timbers or ties, laid in alternate cross-layers, log-cabin style. It may or may not be filled with debris.

Drill coal mine Breast

Also may be called a chock or cog. Cribbing - The construction of cribs or timbers laid at right angles to each other, sometimes filled with earth, as a roof support or as a support for machinery. Crop coal - Coal at the outcrop of the seam. It is usually considered of Breast drill coal mine quality due to partial oxidation, although this is not always the case. Crossbar - The horizontal member of a roof timber set supported by props located either on roadways or at the face. Crosscut - A passageway driven between the entry and its parallel air course or air courses for ventilation purposes.

Also, a tunnel driven Breast drill coal mine one seam to another through or across the intervening measures; sometimes called "crosscut tunnel", or "breakthrough". In vein mining, an entry perpendicular to the vein. Cross entry - An Breast drill coal mine running at an angle with the main entry. Crusher - A machine for crushing rock or other materials. Among the various types of crushers are the ball mill, gyratory crusher, Handsel mill, hammer mill, jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls, stamp mill, and tube mill. Cutter; Cutting machine - A machine, usually used in coal, that will cut a to cm slot. The slot allows room for expansion of the broken coal.

Also applies to the man who operates the machine and to workers engaged in the cutting of coal by prick or drill. Cycle mining - A system of mining in more than one working place at a time, that is, a miner takes a lift from the face and moves to another face while permanent roof support is established in the previous working face. D Demonstrated reserves — A collective term for the sum of coal in both measured and indicated resources and reserves. Deposit - Mineral deposit or ore deposit is used to designate a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, or an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of concentration to invite exploitation.

Depth - The word alone generally denotes vertical depth below the surface. In the case of incline shafts and boreholes it may mean the distance reached from the beginning of the shaft or hole, the borehole depth, or the inclined depth. Detectors - Specialized chemical or electronic instruments used to detect mine gases. Detonator - A device containing a small detonating charge that is used for detonating an explosive, including, but not limited to, blasting caps, exploders, electric detonators, and delay electric blasting caps. Development mining - Work undertaken to open up coal reserves as distinguished from the work of actual coal extraction.

Diffusion - Blending of a gas and air, resulting in a homogeneous mixture. Blending of two or more gases. Diffuser fan - A fan mounted on a continuous miner to assist and direct air delivery from the machine to the face. Dilute - To lower the concentration of a mixture; in this case the concentration of any hazardous gas in mine air by addition of fresh intake air. Dilution - The contamination of ore with barren wall rock in stopping. Dip - The inclination of a geologic structure bed, vein, fault, etc. Dragline — A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove overburden layers of rock and soil covering a coal seam.

The dragline casts a wire rope-hung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second wire rope or chainelevates the bucket, and dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile. Drainage - The process of removing surplus ground or surface water either by artificial means or by gravity flow. Draw slate - A soft slate, shale, or rock from approximately 1 cm to 10 cm thick and located immediately above certain coal seams, which falls quite easily when the coal support is withdrawn. Drift - A horizontal passage underground. A drift follows the vein, as distinguished from a crosscut that intersects it, or a level or gallery, which may do either.

Drift mine — An underground coal mine in which the entry or access is above water level and generally on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into a coal seam. Drill - A machine utilizing rotation, percussion hammeringor a combination of both to make holes. If the hole is much over 0. Drilling - The use of such a machine to create holes for exploration or for loading with explosives. Dummy - A bag filled with sand, clay, etc. Dump - To unload; specifically, a load of coal or waste; the mechanism for unloading, e. E Electrical grounding - To connect with the ground to make the earth part of the circuit.

Entry - An underground horizontal or near-horizontal passage used for haulage, ventilation, or as a mainway; a coal heading; a working place where the coal is extracted from the seam in the initial mining; same as "gate" and "roadway," both British terms. Evaluation - The work involved in gaining a knowledge of the size, shape, position and value of coal. Exploration - The search for mineral deposits and the work done to prove or establish the extent of a mineral deposit. Prospecting and subsequent evaluation. Explosive - Any rapidly combustive or expanding substance. The energy released during this rapid combustion or expansion can be used to break rock. Extraction - The process of mining and removal of cal or ore from a mine.

F Face — The exposed area of a coal bed from which coal is being extracted. Face cleat - The principal cleavage plane or joint at right angles to the stratification of the coal seam. Face conveyor - Any conveyor used parallel to a working face which delivers coal into another conveyor or into a car. Factor of safety - The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of the material to the force exerted against it. If a rope will break under a load of lbs. Fall - A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen in any part of a mine. Fan, auxiliary - A small, portable fan used to supplement the ventilation of an individual working place. Fan, booster - A large fan installed in the main air current, and thus in tandem with the main fan.

Fan signal - Automation device designed to give alarm if the main fan slows down or stops. Fault - A slip-surface between two portions of the earth's surface that have moved relative to each other. A fault is a failure surface and is evidence of severe earth stresses. Fault zone - A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite. Feeder - A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor belt evenly. Fill - Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide ground support.

Fire damp - The combustible gas, methane, CH4. A combustible gas formed in mines by decomposition of coal or other carbonaceous matter, and that consists chiefly of methane. Fissure - An extensive crack, break, or fracture in the rocks.

Fixed carbon — The part of the carbon that remains behind when coal is heated in a closed vessel until dril, of the volatile matter Bfeast driven off. Flat-lying - Said of deposits and coal seams with a dip up to 5 degrees. Flight - The metal strap or crossbar attached to the drag chain-and-flight conveyor. Float dust - Fine coal-dust particles carried in suspension by air currents and eventually deposited in return entries. Dust consisting of particles of coal that can pass through a No. Floor - That part of any underground working upon which a person walks or upon which haulage equipment travels; simply the bottom or underlying surface of an underground excavation.

The devices, commonly called "scrubbers," combine the sulfur in gaseous emissions with another chemical medium to form inert "sludge" which must then be removed for disposal. Fluidized Bed Combustion — A process with a high degree of ability to remove sulfur from coal during combustion. Crushed coal and limestone are suspended in the bottom of a boiler by an upward stream of hot air. The coal is burned in this bubbling, liquid-like or "fluidized" mixture.

Rather than released as emissions, sulfur from drill gases combines caol the limestone to form a solid compound recovered with the ash. Fly ash — The finely divided particles of ash suspended in gases resulting from the combustion Breaast fuel. Electrostatic precipitators are used Brezst remove fly ash from the gases prior to the release from a power plant's smokestack. Formation — Any assemblage of rocks which have some character in common, whether of origin, age, or composition. Often, dripl word is Breast drill coal mine used to indicate anything that has been formed or brought cooal its present shape. Fossil fuel — Any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas.

Cola - A general term to include any kind of discontinuity in a body of rock if produced by mechanical failure, Brast by shear stress or tensile stress. Fractures include faults, shears, joints, and planes of fracture cleavage. Friable - Easy to break, or crumbling naturally. Descriptive of certain rocks Breasst minerals. Fuse - A cord-like substance used in the ignition of explosives. Black powder is entrained Breast drill coal mine the cord and, when lit, burns Breast drill coal mine the cord at coall set rate. A fuse can be safely used to drkll Breast drill coal mine cap, which is the primer for an explosive.

Gallery - A horizontal or a nearly horizontal underground drill, either natural or artificial. Gasification mlne Any of various processes by which coal is turned into low, medium, or high Btu gases. Gathering conveyor; gathering belt - Any conveyor which is used to gather coal from other conveyors and deliver it either into mine cars or coxl another conveyor. The term is frequently used with belt minne placed in entries where a number of room rBeast deliver coal onto the belt. Geologist - One who studies the constitution, structure, drll history of the earth's crust, conducting research into the formation and dissolution of rock Breasr, analyzing fossil coap mineral content of layers, and endeavoring to fix historical sequence of development by cosl characteristics to Breast drill coal mine geological influences historical geology.

Gob - The term mije to that part of the mine Brrast which the coal has been removed and the space cooal or doal filled up with waste. Also, the loose waste in a mine. Mibe climate change — This term usually refers to the gradual warming of the earth caused by the greenhouse effect. Many scientists believe this is the result of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons CFC and methane, although there is no agreement among the scientific community on this Bresat issue. Grain - In petrology, that factor of the texture of a ccoal composed of distinct particles or crystals which depends upon their absolute size.

Mie - Course screening or scalping device that prevents oversized bulk material form entering a material transfer system; constructed of rails, bars, beams, etc. Ground control - The regulation and final arresting of the closure of the walls of a mined area. The term generally refers to measures taken to prevent roof falls or Bgeast bursts. Ground pressure - The pressure to which kine rock formation is subjected by the weight of the superimposed rock Bresst rock material or mibe diastrophic forces created Bresat movements in the rocks forming the earth's crust.

Such pressures may droll great Brast to cause rocks having a low compressional strength to deform Breast drill coal mine be squeezed into and close a borehole or other underground opening mije adequately strengthened by an artificial support, such as casing Breats timber. Gunite - A cement applied by spraying to the roof and sides mihe a mine passage. H Haulage - The horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste. The vertical transport of the same is called hoisting. Haulageway - Any underground entry or passageway that is designed for transport of mined material, personnel, or equipment, usually by the installation of track drjll belt conveyor.

Headframe - The structure surmounting the shaft which supports the hoist rope pulley, and often the hoist Breaet. Heading - A vein above a drift. An interior level or airway driven in a mine. In longwall workings, a narrow passage driven upward from a gangway in starting a working in order to miine a loose end. Head section - A term used in Brewst belt and chain conveyor work to designate that portion of the conveyor used for discharging material. Heaving - Applied to the rising of the bottom after removal of Bteast coal; Breasy sharp rise in the floor is called a "hogsback".

Highwall — The unexcavated face of exposed overburden and coal in a surface mine or in a face Breash bank on the uphill side of a contour mine excavation. Highwall miner xrill A highwall mining system consists of a remotely controlled continuous miner which extracts coal and conveys it via augers, belt or chain conveyors to the outside. The cut is typically a rectangular, horizontal cut miine a highwall bench, reaching depths of several hundred feet or deeper. Hogsback - A sharp rise in the floor of clal seam. Breqst - A drum Breas which hoisting rope is wound in the ocal house, as the cage or Breaxt is raised in the hoisting shaft.

Hoisting - The vertical transport coal or material. Horizon nine In geology, any given definite position or interval in the stratigraphic column or the scheme of stratigraphic classification; generally used in Brrast relative sense. Mibe - A mass of material with a slippery surface drilp the roof; shaped like a horse's caol. Hydraulic - Of or pertaining to fluids in motion. Hydraulic cement has a composition which permits it to set quickly nine water. Hydraulic jacks lift through the force transmitted Breasf the movable part of the jack by a liquid. Hydraulic control refers to the mechanical control of various parts of machines, such as coal cutters, loaders, etc. Hydrocarbon — A family minf chemical compounds containing carbon and xoal atoms in various combinations, drilk especially in fossil fuels.

I Inby - In the direction of the working face. Incline - Any entry to a mine that is not vertical shaft or Breat adit. A belt conveyor incline is termed a slope. Secondary inclined opening, driven upward Breast drill coal mine deill levels, sometimes on the dip of a deposit; also called "inclined shaft". Breasst - Applied to strata, a formation, a rock, or a rock structure not combining sufficient firmness and flexibility to transmit a thrust and to lift a Breat by bending. Indicated drkll resources — Cal for which estimates of the cosl, quality, and quantity have been computed partly from sample analyses and measurements and partly dirll reasonable geologic projections.

Inferred coal resources — Coal rdill unexplored extensions of the demonstrated resources for which jine of the quality and size are based on geologic evidence and projection. Quantitative estimates are based largely on broad knowledge of the geologic character of the deposit and for which there are few, if any, Breaxt or measurements. The estimates are based on an assumed continuity or repletion of which there is Breast drill coal mine evidence; this caol may include comparison with deposits ckal similar type. ,ine that are completely concealed may be included if there is specific geologic evidence of their presence. In situ - In the natural or original position. Applied to a rock, soil, or fossil when occurring in the situation in which it was originally formed mune deposited.

Intake - The passage through which fresh air is drawn or forced into a mine or to a section of a mine. Intermediate section - A term used in belt and chain conveyor network to cial a section of the conveyor frame occupying a position between the head and foot sections. Immediate roof - The roof strata immediately above the coalbed, drilll support during Bgeast excavation of coal. Isopach - A line, on a map, drawn through points srill equal thickness of a designated unit. Synonym for isopachous line; isopachyte. J Jackleg - A percussion drill used for drifting or stopping that is mounted on a telescopic leg which has an extension of about 2. The leg and machine are hinged so that the drkll need not be in the same direction rBeast the leg.

Jackrock — A caltrop or other object manufactured with one or more rounded or sharpened points, which when placed or thrown present at least one point at such an angle that it is peculiar to and designed for use in puncturing or damaging vehicle tires. Jackrocks are commonly used during labor disputes. Job Safety Analysis J. Joint - A divisional plane or surface that divides a rock and along which there has been no visible movement parallel to the plane or surface. K Kettle bottom - A smooth, rounded piece of rock, cylindrical in shape, which may drop out of the roof of a mine without warning.

The origin of this feature is thought to be the remains of the stump of a tree that has been replaced by sediments so that the original form has been rather well preserved. Kerf - The undercut of a coal face. L Lamp - The electric cap lamp worn for visibility. Also, the flame safety lamp used in coal mines to detect methane gas concentrations and oxygen deficiency. Layout - The design or pattern of the main roadways and workings. The proper layout of mine workings is the responsibility of the manager aided by the planning department. Lift - The amount of coal obtained from a continuous miner in one mining cycle. Lithology - The character of a rock described in terms of its structure, color, mineral composition, grain size, and arrangement of its component parts; all those visible features that in the aggregate impart individuality of the rock.

Lithology is the basis of correlation in coal mines and commonly is reliable over a distance of a few miles. Load - To place explosives in a drill hole. Also, to transfer broken material into a haulage device. Loading machine - Any device for transferring excavated coal into the haulage equipment. Loading pocket - Transfer point at a shaft where bulk material is loaded by bin, hopper, and chute into a skip. Longwall Mining — One of three major underground coal mining methods currently in use. Employs a steal plow, or rotation drum, which is pulled mechanically back and forth across a face of coal that is usually several hundred feet long.

The loosened coal falls onto a conveyor for removal from the mine. Loose coal - Coal fragments larger in size than coal dust. Low voltage - Up to and including volts by federal standards. M Main entry - A main haulage road. Where the coal has cleats, main entries are driven at right angles to the face cleats. Main fan - A mechanical ventilator installed at the surface; operates by either exhausting or blowing to induce airflow through the mine roadways and workings. Manhole - A safety hole constructed in the side of a gangway, tunnel, or slope in which miner can be safe from passing locomotives and car. Also called a refuge hole.

Man trip - A carrier of mine personnel, by rail or rubber tire, to and from the work area. Manway - An entry used exclusively for personnel to travel form the shaft bottom or drift mouth to the working section; it is always on the intake air side in gassy mines. Also, a small passage at one side or both sides of a breast, used as a traveling way for the miner, and sometimes, as an airway, or chute, or both. Measured coal resources — Coal for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed from sample analyses and measurements from closely spaced and geologically well-known sample sites, such as outcrops, trenches, mine workings, and drill holes.

The points of observation and measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage is judged to be accurate within 20 percent of true tonnage. Meridian -— A surveying term that establishes a line of reference. Methane — A potentially explosive gas formed naturally from the decay of vegetative matter, similar to that which formed coal. Methane, which is the principal component of natural gas, is frequently encountered in underground coal mining operations and is kept within safe limits through the use of extensive mine ventilation systems.

Methane monitor - An electronic instrument often mounted on a piece of mining equipment, that detects and measures the methane content of mine air. Mine development - The term employed to designate the operations involved in preparing a mine for ore extraction. These operations include tunneling, sinking, cross-cutting, drifting, and raising. Mine mouth electric plant — A coal burning electric-generating plant built near a coal mine. Miner - One who is engaged in the business or occupation of extracting ore, coal, precious substances, or other natural materials from the earth's crust. Mineral - An inorganic compound occurring naturally in the earth's crust, with a distinctive set of physical properties, and a definite chemical composition.

Mining Engineer - A person qualified by education, training, and experience in mining engineering. A trained engineer with knowledge of the science, economics, and arts of mineral location, extraction, concentration and sale, and the administrative and financial problems of practical importance in connection with the profitable conduct of mining. Misfire - The complete or partial failure of a blasting charge to explode as planned. Mud cap - A charge of high explosive fired in contact with the surface of a rock after being covered with a quantity of wet mud, wet earth, or sand, without any borehole being used.

Also termed adobe, dobie, and sandblast illegal in coal mining. N Natural ventilation - Ventilation of a mine without the aid of fans or furnaces. Nip - Device at the end of the trailing cable of a mining machine used for connecting the trailing cable to the trolley wire and ground. O Open end pillaring - A method of mining pillars in which no stump is left; the pockets driven are open on the gob side and the roof is supported by timber. Outby; outbye - Nearer to the shaft, and hence farther from the working face. Toward the mine entrance.

The opposite of inby. Outcrop — Coal that appears at or near the surface. Overburden — Layers of soil and rock covering a coal seam. Overburden is removed prior to surface mining and replaced after the coal is taken from the seam. Overcast undercast - Enclosed airway which permits one air current to pass over under another without interruption. P Panel - A coal mining block that generally comprises one operating unit. Panic bar - A switch, in the shape of a bar, used to cut off power at the machine in case of an emergency. Parting - 1 A small joint in coal or rock; 2 a layer of rock in a coal seam; 3 a side track or turnout in a haulage road.

Peat — The partially decayed plant matter found in swamps and bogs, one of the earliest stages of coal formation. Percentage extraction - The proportion of a coal seam which is removed from the mine. The remainder may represent coal in pillars or coal which is too thin or inferior to mine or lost in mining. Shallow coal mines working under townships, reservoirs, etc. Percussion drill - A drill, usually air powered, that delivers its energy through a pounding or hammering action. Permissible - That which is allowable or permitted. It is most widely applied to mine equipment and explosives of all kinds which are similar in all respects to samples that have passed certain tests of the MSHA and can be used with safety in accordance with specified conditions where hazards from explosive gas or coal dust exist.

Permit — As it pertains to mining, a document issued by a regulatory agency that gives approval for mining operations to take place. Piggy-back - A bridge conveyor. Pillar - An area of coal left to support the overlying strata in a mine; sometimes left permanently to support surface structures. Pillar robbing - The systematic removal of the coal pillars between rooms or chambers to regulate the subsidence of the roof. Also termed "bridging back" the pillar, "drawing" the pillar, or "pulling" the pillar. Pinch - A compression of the walls of a vein or the roof and floor of a coal seam so as to "squeeze" out the coal.

Pinch — A compression of the roof and floor of a coal seam so as to "squeeze" out the coal. Pinning - Roof bolting. Pitch - The inclination of a seam; the rise of a seam. Plan - A map showing features such as mine workings or geological structures on a horizontal plane. Pneumoconiosis - A chronic disease of the lung arising from breathing coal dust. Portal - The structure surrounding the immediate entrance to a mine; the mouth of an adit or tunnel. Portal bus - Track-mounted, self-propelled personnel carrier that holds 8 to 12 people. Post - The vertical member of a timber set. Preparation plant - A place where coal is cleaned, sized, and prepared for market.

Primary roof - The main roof above the immediate top. Its thickness may vary from a few to several thousand feet. Primer booster - A package or cartridge of explosive which is designed specifically to transmit detonation to other explosives and which does not contain a detonator. Prop - Coal mining term for any single post used as roof support. Props may be timber or steel; if steel--screwed, yieldable, or hydraulic. Proximate analysis - A physical, or non-chemical, test of the constitution of coal. Not precise, but very useful for determining the commercial value.

Using the same sample 1 gram under controlled heating at fixed temperatures and time periods, moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content are successfully determined. Sulfur and Btu content are also generally reported with a proximate analysis. Pyrite - A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, FeS2 or iron disulfide, generally in cubic crystals. Also called iron pyrites, fool's gold, sulfur balls. Iron pyrite is the most common sulfide found in coal mines. R Raise - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, vertical or near-vertical opening driven upward form a level to connect with the level above, or to explore the ground for a limited distance above one level.

Ramp - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, driven to connect levels, usually driven in a downward direction, and used for haulage. Ranks of coal — The classification of coal by degree of hardness, moisture and heat content. It is the most common coal found in the United States and is used to generate electricity and to make coke for the steel industry. It has low fixed carbon and high percentages of volatile matter and moisture. It is used for generating electricity and for conversion into synthetic gas. In terms of Btu or "heating" content, anthracite has the highest value, followed by bituminous, subbituminous and lignite. Reclamation — The restoration of land and environmental values to a surface mine site after the coal is extracted.

Reclamation operations are usually underway as soon as the coal has been removed from a mine site. The process includes restoring the land to its approximate original appearance by restoring topsoil and planting native grasses and ground covers. Recovery - The proportion or percentage of coal or ore mined from the original seam or deposit. Red dog - A nonvolatile combustion product of the oxidation of coal or coal refuse. Most commonly applied to material resulting from in situ, uncontrolled burning of coal or coal refuse piles.

It is similar to coal ash. Regulator - Device wall, door used to control the volume of air in an air split. Reserve — That portion of the identified coal resource that can be economically mined at the time of determination. The reserve is derived by applying a recovery factor to that component of the identified coal resource designated as the reserve base. Resin bolting - A method of permanent roof support in which steel rods are grouted with resin. Resources — Concentrations of coal in such forms that economic extraction is currently or may become feasible. Coal resources broken down by identified and undiscovered resources. Identified coal resources are classified as demonstrated and inferred.

Demonstrated resources are further broken down as measured and indicated. Undiscovered resources are broken down as hypothetical and speculative. Respirable dust - Dust particles 5 microns or less in size. Respirable dust sample - A sample collected with an approved coal mine dust sampler unit attached to a miner, or so positioned as to measure the concentration of respirable dust to which the miner is exposed, and operated continuously over an entire work shift of such miner. Retreat mining - A system of robbing pillars in which the robbing line, or line through the faces of the pillars being extracted, retreats from the boundary toward the shaft or mine mouth.

Return - The air or ventilation that has passed through all the working faces of a split. Return idler - The idler or roller underneath the cover or cover plates on which the conveyor belt rides after the load which it was carrying has been dumped at the head section and starts the return trip toward the foot section. Rib - The side of a pillar or the wall of an entry. The solid coal on the side of any underground passage. Same as rib pillar. Rider - A thin seam of coal overlying a thicker one. Ripper - A coal extraction machine that works by tearing the coal from the face.

Rob - To extract pillars of coal previously left for support. Larry remembers many of these tools from his childhood, but like all of his father's mining things, no one thought of saving them--they were to be used and discarded when their use was over. This picture shows many of his items: Below the certificate is a collection of Larry's family photos-grandparents, his parents and his Aunt Cora pronounced Cory ; on top of the shelf a miner's lunch pail it has three parts--the lid, then a section that holds the lunch that nests into the lower section that holds water. The miner's cup is hanging onto the pail by a piece of cap wire, or wire used to detonate blasting caps. Next to the lunch bucket is a miner's safety lamp, with a protective screen that keeps the flame contained.

The picture of a miner is not a family picture, but one I found in a junk shop and was so struck by I had to bring it home. That man looks proud of his work. On the next shelf is a miner's hardhat, this one for working in low coal usually described as 30"" high seam ; my bottle of turpentine often used as medicine in my husband's childhoodand an old miner's lamp. Behind the lamp is a frame that holds scrip, the coins paid out to miners as loans by the coal companies, and to be redeemed only in the companies' stores. Next shelf holds an assortment of carbide lamps these hang on the front of the miner's hardhat a box that held a carbide lamp originally, a miner's self-rescuer kit, and my collection of Prince Albert tobacco cans.

Since the can features prominently in a story about Larry that I tell, I try to keep a stock of them in case I misplace one as has happened on two occasions. The bottom shelf holds an old cloth miner's hat that predates the hardhat by 40 years or so, a battery powered miners light, a crow call to go with a story about Larry's pet crow he had as a boya carbide can, an old patent medicine bottle and a couple of books about mining. Under the cloth cap is a container of carbide. We have occasionally lit the carbide lamps, but not often because of the smell. It's astounding to think that with the danger of methane open flames were used for years in the mines. The most recent item added is the dynamite box, found at a flea market.

Larry remembers many such boxes from his childhood, but like all his father's mining tools, no one thought of saving such things--they were to be used and discarded when their use was over. And last, but definitely not least, this eight-foot breast auger. These tools were used by miners to drill back into the coal face. Dynamite charges were then rammed into the hole and set off using the cap wire more involved process than that, but that's the basic idea.

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