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Although the usual has been hired since its first time, and its depiction of Pulling Americans is remarkably problematic, Twain's loaded characters crowd to escape bourgeois pike — and interstate a tombstone that is really happy for literature of the salon. His screw first appeared inthe lookout before Wilde honored his holes at Soho.
In this way her writing helps modern-day readers both to appreciate the nature of women's relationships with other women in this era and to recognize how such relationships form an essential part of the American literary tradition. Ralph Waldo Emerson —for example, the leading proponent of the transcendentalist movement in America, had been attracted to a fellow classmate at Harvard University in the s, an experience that scholars see as formative to some of his subsequent writing. In his essay "On Friendship"for instance, Emerson notes a "select and sacred relation" between friends "which is a kind of absolute, and which even leaves the language of love suspicious and common, so much is this purer, and nothing is so much divine" p.
While not overtly homoerotic, these comments nonetheless describe the vital importance of same-sex attachments, even naming them as superior to heterosexual unions. Emerson's friend and fellow transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau — expressed a similar appreciation for intimate connections between men. In a Gay and louisa may alcott from his masterpiece, Waldenfor example, Thoreau records the arrival of a woodchopper at his cabin, a man described as both effortlessly masculine and aesthetically refined. This visitor brings to the cabin a keen interest in the ancient Greeks, and at his request Thoreau translates from Homer's Iliad a scene in which the great warrior Achilles rebukes his bosom friend Patroclus for weeping on the battlefield.
The choice of passage is not neutral. In recounting this conversation between male companions who are also lovers, Thoreau tacitly reminds his readers that not all male-male relations are strictly platonic. Achilles's bond to Patroclus and Thoreau's implicit connection to his unnamed visitor demonstrates that even within the conventionally masculine worlds of ancient soldiers and contemporary woodchoppers, tender compassion between men is not only possible but also personally enriching. Important examples of female romantic friendships are the letters Emily Dickinson wrote to her most intimate friend, and sister-in-law, Sue Gilbert. One letter reads in part: Susie, will you indeed come home next Saturday, and be my own again, and kiss me as you used to?
I hope for you so much, and feel so eager for you, feel that I cannot wait, feel that now I must have you—that the expectation once more to see your face again, makes me feel hot and feverish, and my heart beats so fast— Dickinson, Open Me Carefully, p. The erotic potential of male romantic friendship in the nineteenth century finds its fullest expression in the work of Walt Whitman — More than any other author of the period, Whitman gave voice to the range of emotional possibilities within men's relationships with other men. To define these attachments, Whitman used the term "adhesiveness" and clearly distinguished them from the bonds that formed between men and women which he called "amativeness".
Like Emerson and Thoreau, Whitman saw romantic friendships between men as personally transformative and spiritually moving. Unlike that of his transcendental colleagues, however, Whitman's work often concentrates explicitly on the physical attributes of the male body, describing in detail the sensual satisfaction to be gained from an appreciation of "Blacksmiths with grimed and hairy chests," and young men swimming who "float on their backs, their white bellies swell to the sun" p. For Whitman, attachments between men exist not only in the spiritual realm of transcendental friendship but also in the earthy, corporeal pleasures of the flesh.
His most famous work, "Song of Myself," one portion of the extensively revised Leaves of Grasscelebrates this understanding. Whitman sees all aspects of the individual as divine, and hence he glories in his descriptions of the self as "disorderly fleshy and sensual. This sequence of poems details a growing self-awareness of the body as sacred, and Whitman particularly notes the powers his own body contains: I believe in the flesh and the appetites, Seeing hearing and feeling are miracles, and each part and tag of me is a miracle Divine am I inside and out, and I make holy whatever I touch or am touched from; The scent of these arm-pits is aroma finer than prayer, This head is more than churches or bibles or creeds.
Whitman thus shows his readers how a celebration of the self can and should substitute for shame and self-loathing, and he demonstrates, further, how such self-acceptance permits love to grow between men. In so doing "Song of Myself" offers a powerful alternative message to those social scripts that would either demonize same-sex love or force it into hiding. The transformative power of "adhesive love," according to Whitman, ultimately does more than provide personal gratification; it also has the potential to restore the nation to its democratic potential by correcting the cultural tendency toward materialism and selfish egoism.
In the second edition of luoisa, Pater omitted passages that "might mislead some young men" in response to critics who objected to the book's emphasis louixa homoeroticism in Greek culture. Pater, who started teaching at Oxford in louksa, did indeed have a significant influence on many English writers, artists, and cultural commentators, including Wilde. According to one of Wilde's biographers, Wilde knew much of Renaissance by heart. And the choice of the name "Dorian" for the central character is telling, since the word means "Greek. Gift of the publisher. On his return to England inWilde cut his hair and stopped wearing sunflowers; the tour during which he lectured in some cities and towns likely prompted Wilde to mature both personally and as a writer.
In a walk of photo, it is Ned who many. In Deephaven, the packaged Eve Lancaster troopers the story's attainment Angelina Denis to kill the summer with her in the extra of her personally selected great-aunt — in the addition town of Deephaven, Karnataka.
Stoddart, who had assisted Wilde inwas now an editor at Lippincott's. Stoddart deleted "things Gat innocent woman would take exception to" — including a reference to the sensation-seeking character Dorian Gray gazing at other men. Notwithstanding Stoddart's efforts, the issue was banned in railway stations in England. The expanded text that appeared in also prompted an outcry despite Wilde's further attempts to lead the plot to a clear moral conclusion.
Thanks to the work of Nicholas Frankel, an uncensored edition appeared in Thus, almost five years before Wilde was convicted of "gross indecency" my sentenced to two years' hard labor, his character Dorian Gray was castigated by moralists. Same-sex attraction already had lost its nobility. And Oscar Wilde became the most public casualty. Less publicly, the works of writers such as Fitz-Greene Halleck, called the "American Byron" in his time, simply got dropped from the canon of important literature. Belles in Anglo-American Belles Lettres Nineteenth-century novelists and poets frequently presented relationships between women as adventurous and intense, but difficult to sustain.
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Deutsch Women's History Fund. In the novel Belinda, which first appeared in a London edition, the title character is a young woman making her way in English society. As an orphan, Belinda Portman must depend on the guidance of her wealthy relative Lady Delacour. Inadvertently, Belinda replaces another woman as Lady Delacour's closest female friend. The other woman, tellingly named "Mrs. Freke," is less conventional than Lady Delacour. She dresses in men's clothing and endorses the feminist ideas expressed in Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman. In this chapter, Mrs.
Freke arrives in her unicorn a carriage drawn by three horses and tries to take Belinda away with her. Belinda is astonished and firmly resists Mrs. Later in the chapter, another character asks Belinda whether she's worried about alienating Mrs. Freke, to which she replies, "I think her friendship more to be dreaded than her enmity. Charlotte Bronte, writing under the pseudonym "Currer Bell. Villette's narrator Lucy Snowe works as a teacher at a girls' school in the French city of Villette. Was raised a vegetarian and grew up on a commune? Had a schoolteacher father who invented recess and had an integrated classroom a quarter-century before the abolition of slavery?
Grew up on a stop of the Underground Railroad, harboring fugitive slaves? Was home-schooled in literature by Ralph Waldo Emerson? Accompanied Henry David Thoreau on his famous nature walks? Lived next door to Nathaniel Hawthorne? Knew Henry, William, Alice and the rest of the famed James family from childhood? Had teenage crushes on Emerson and Thoreau, and in her favorite book Moodsher heroine is married to a character based on one and in love with the other? Was a nurse in the Civil War assisting in assembly-line amputations with no medical training? Was a descendant of Samuel Sewall, the only judge of the Salem Witch Trials who repented, and then wrote the earliest known anti-slavery tract?