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Babe imgze and masturbation Yet another identical physiological evolution in many is menopause, which has when pickpockets stop menstruating crash because ovarian follicular assertion manages; medicaid is identified by twelve aged months without city Sherman, ; Utian, Peaceful recently, cross-sectional tweet in a slut of people aged 40—60 indicated that perimenopausal bad bohemian significantly seated steal image distress, even after completing for age and BMI. Whereby some pics go those represented in the best on numerous times e.
The fact that we could identify imyae one Adult imgae to directly investigate the relationship between body image and depressed Adupt highlights the need for additional research. Eating disorders in adult women Although eating disorders Immgae are frequently considered disorders of adolescence and young-adulthood, cross-sectional research migae that EDs and eating pathology are prevalent among middle-aged Adult imgae et al. In a study including over women, ages 40 to 60, 4. Of note, imgse extant research involves large and diverse samples, existing cross-sectional research examining prevalence rates Afult eating pathology in older adult women is limited by self-report data and sampling imvae related to response rates.
Longitudinal research further supports prevalence rates. Keel and colleagues assessed individuals in college and then at year imgwe and found that 4. Therefore, there may be differential risk for late onset of EDs by diagnosis. In summary, further research is warranted in larger, non-treatment-seeking samples before Adjlt any firm conclusions about late-onset risk for EDs. Body image and physiological imbae associated with ageing in women As mentioned previously, body changes that occur during the aging process may contribute to body image concerns. Therefore, in understanding body dissatisfaction in adult women, it is important to review physiological factors relevant to aging in women along with their association with body image.
In spite of such steady findings, a few discrepancies have emerged throughout various research studies. For instance, Mangweth-Matzek and colleagues assessed body image in older adult women ages 60— Rather, societal influence predicted body image concerns in older adult women, even though younger women reported greater societal influence overall. Lastly, in a longitudinal study, McLaren and colleagues found that women who endorsed low body esteem in mid-life had a higher BMI as early as age seven, and lifetime trajectory of BMI was significantly different for women in the high versus low weight esteem groups.
Specifically, women with low weight esteem experienced a steeper increase in lifetime BMI trajectory as compared to high weight esteem women, and women in the low weight esteem group showed a spike in BMI at midlife as well. The cause for this pattern remains unknown, as numerous factors across the lifespan likely contributed to BMI trajectory McLaren et al. Further research investigating the longitudinal transaction between BMI and body dissatisfaction in women across the lifespan is warranted. Pregnancy Pregnancy is an exceedingly complicated body image experience in modern Western culture.
As noted by Dworkin and Wachsa pregnant woman is maternally successful while simultaneously failing to conform to societal thin-ideal standards. In addition, the media promotes celebrity mothers to demonstrate the feasibility of returning to pre-baby status http: In summary, pregnant and postpartum women, who are experiencing enormous physical and life changes, find themselves at the center of a cultural storm regarding their bodies. With regard to the empirical literature on pregnancy and body image, research paints an equally complex picture. For instance, Mehta et al. In contrast, women who desired a thinner body and started their pregnancy overweight or obese were at decreased risk.
Research also links body image dissatisfaction with pregnancy and postpartum depression e.
As with other areas, results immgae a complex relationship. For instance, whereas Downs et al. Qualitative research suggests that women experience both AAdult and negative changes in body image during pregnancy. Yet, at postpartum they experienced negative body attitudes lmgae they were unable to lose weight and reduce their stomach size as fast as they had expected. It is beyond the scope of this paper to Adult imgae explore the complex quantitative and qualitative immgae on body Adjlt both imfae pregnancy and postpartum. Nonetheless, it is clear that this life period is highly relevant to the study of body image in adult women. Further, additional research is needed to explore the complex body image issues adult women face.
Body image and menopause Yet another natural physiological evolution in women is menopause, which occurs when women stop menstruating permanently because ovarian follicular activity ceases; menopause is identified by twelve consecutive months without menstruation Sherman, ; Utian, The transition into menopause typically occurs by age 55 Khaw, Body changes that occur during this transitional phase of life may contribute to changes in body image, particularly since common body changes during menopause conflict with the Western beauty standard. As a result of these changes, women may experience reductions in feelings of youthfulness, beauty, and sexual attractiveness Hurd, Further, although some women experience negative emotions regarding menopause, other women experience an increase in enjoyment of sexual activity and sexual freedom, as well as relief immgae fertility Dillaway, Similarly, Busch and colleagues found that women who endorsed a perspective that aging is a natural and manageable part of life, and who associated aging with Adlut positive characteristics e.
With regard to research investigating menopause and body imvae satisfaction, cross-sectional findings on women pre- and post-menopause are both equivocal and limited. Koch and colleagues assessed self-perceived attractiveness in a sample of over heterosexual women ages 39— Results indicated immgae significant differences in self-perceived attractiveness between pre- peri- or post-menopausal women. Conversely, in a sample of over women ages 35—65, Deeks and McCabe found that pre-menopausal women endorsed higher positive evaluations of their appearance and identified smaller ideal body figures than did post-menopausal women.
More recently, cross-sectional research in a sample of women aged 40—60 indicated that perimenopausal women reported significantly higher body image distress, even after controlling for age and BMI. These finding suggests that elevated body dissatisfaction in perimenopausal women was not exclusively due to the weight gain often experienced during menopause Mangweth-Matzek et al. In addition, women with surgically-induced menopause evidenced significantly higher body image pathology than did premenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy HRT is a counter-measure for menopause which involves consuming supplements of hormones that the body stops producing during menopause.
Consequently, HRT can slow down the physiological evolution that occurs through menopause. To our knowledge, only one study to date has examined the effects of HRT on body image related variables. McLaren and colleagues found that women who began HRT before the onset of menopause endorsed higher body satisfaction than did premenopausal women, and that the elevated satisfaction in HRT users was in part due to being thinner. Further research is needed in this area, particularly in light of mixed data regarding the health benefits and costs of HRT British Menopause Society, In sum, menopause neither invariably nor uniquely engenders body dissatisfaction in women.
A full review of medical conditions and illnesses associated with human aging in general, and in women in particular, is beyond the scope of this paper; however, we provide a review of a few common medical issues older adult women face to offer examples of the relationship between medical conditions and body image. Overall, with the exception of breast and gynecological cancers, more research in this area is needed. Breast and gynecological cancers The risk for cancer increases as people age DePinho, Thus, mid- and late-life women are more likely to be affected both by cancer and its body image sequelae as compared to younger women. Cancers and their treatments e.
For instance, mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery, or breast reconstructive surgery can leave scarring and sensory impairment. These aforementioned effects often require a process of adjustment Fingeret et al. While a comprehensive review of research on body image and breast and gynecological cancers is beyond the scope of the current paper, we highlight specific findings within this field. Overall, research indicates that body image concerns are highly prevalent among female breast cancer patients Fobair et al. For instance, alopecia secondary to chemotherapy may have differential effects.
For instance, in a review of alopecia due to chemotherapy, Lemieux and colleagues found that whereas some studies evidenced body image concerns related to alopecia, others indicated that women viewed this side effect as symbolic of treatment effectiveness Lemieux et al. Some cross-sectional research suggests that patients who undergo mastectomy alone or with reconstructive surgery experience greater body image concerns than found with breast-conserving surgery Janz et al. Interestingly, women who underwent mastectomy with breast reconstruction also reported poorer body image than mastectomy alone even after controlling for surgical side effect at 6-months post-operation.
By 2-years post-operation, however, the surgery type groups did not differ in body image concerns Collins et al. In sum, body image concerns while diagnosed with cancer, during treatment, or post-treatment appear to be a normative experience Fingeret,and should be considered when exploring the body image concerns of adult women Collins et al. Research has indicated an association between chronic pain conditions and body image disturbances. For instance, Akkaya and colleagues found that adult female patients with fibromyalgia Consistent with some studies e.
Notably, however, for those RA patients with body image disturbances, the focus of concerns was on specific body parts and associated disability.
Lastly, although substantial research investigating body image in patients with chronic pain conditions exists, much of this literature includes mixed-gender samples and therefore it is difficult to tease out possible female-specific outcomes. Body image and health behaviors As noted above, body image problems have been associated with a variety of health behaviors in younger females. Research Adult imgae the relationship between body image and a number of health behaviors in adult women throughout the lifespan, however, is scant. Despite this, there are reasons to expect that body image and health behaviors interact. Note that because most of the literature on body image and eating behavior in older women is confounded with disordered eating and eating disorders, which were already reviewed, we do not include eating behaviors below.
Research that investigates the relationship between body image and normative variations in eating is needed. Pregnancy also is commonly recognized as sleep-disrupting Soares,and menopause is associated with an increase in obstructive sleep apnea Phillips et al. Other problems that have been theorized or found to worsen sleep in adult women include a range of Adult imgae transitions including caring for adult parents, divorce, re-entry to the workforce, and death of a spouse Soares, In our review, we were unable to identify any studies that specifically investigated the relationship between sleep and body image. Yet, there are good reasons to speculate an association between sleep and body image in adult women.
For instance, in addition to contributing to impaired cognitive and psychomotor functioning and reduced feelings of physical wellness Soares,sleep deprivation can lead to changes in physical appearance. More specifically, Sundelin and colleagues found that compared to photos of well rested individuals, photos of sleep deprived individuals were rated as having significantly more hanging eyelids, red and swollen eyes, dark circles under the eyes, eye wrinkles, and droopiness around the mouth. Overall, photos were rated as looking more fatigued. Second, sleep and depression are bi-directionally related such that depression can lead to sleep problems and sleep problems increase risk for depression http: As noted above, preliminary evidence suggests a relationship between clinically significant depression and body dissatisfaction in midlife women, though the nature of the relationship is currently unclear Jackson et al.
It should be noted, however, that in younger females body dissatisfaction has been found to predict subsequent increases in depression Bearman et al. Smoking Research in younger women i. Regarding adult women and smoking, research indicates that women are more weight concerned then men i. Further, mixed gender research indicates that increased weight concerns are associated with increase beliefs in the weight suppressing power of cigarettes White et al. Addressing body image concerns, however, may improve cessation rates. Results indicated that women who received adjunctive CBT aimed at reducing weight concerns reported significantly higher continuous abstinence rates as compared to a standard counseling.
Behavioral weight management was not superior to standard counseling. These results suggest that addressing body image concerns in adult women smokers may improve their ability to quit. Exercise As noted above, in younger females, body dissatisfaction has been associated with decreased physical activity Neumark-Stzainer et al. Recent research supports a similar outcome for adult females. Participants who reported engaging in physical activity for body shape reasons e. Concerns about body dissatisfaction negatively affecting physical activity in adult women were further supported by qualitative data Liechty et al. Conclusions Although the literature regarding body dissatisfaction and associated predictors, correlates and outcomes is substantially stronger in younger women, increasingly researchers are recognizing the importance of investigating body image in adult women across the lifespan.
This is a significant improvement in the literature given that existing research supports the supposition that one cannot simply generalize from younger females to older females in the domain of body image. Despite significant gains, we found many weaknesses in existing research. With a few exceptions e. Although some gaps mirror those seen in the literature on younger females e. For instance, we were surprised by the almost complete lack of research investigating depression and body image alone without eating disorders in adult women given the reasonably strong corresponding literature in younger females. Further, researchers need to be careful not to conflate body dissatisfaction with eating disorders.
After all, what better way to show that body image matters than to highlight its association with quite lethal disorders. Yet, as demonstrated in this review, body image is associated with a host of predictors, outcomes and correlates beyond eating disorders across the female lifespan, and it is past time to focus on these to the same extent as eating disorders. This research also should help continue improve the gradual recognition in both the healthcare fields and general public that body image is neither a problem exclusively associated with young females nor simply an issue of vanity.
In addition, the literature is in desperate need of longitudinal research. Although more cross-sectional research also is warranted, as noted repeatedly throughout this paper, it is virtually impossible to disentangle the effects of aging and associated life and body changes on body image from cohort effects using cross-sectional research. Longitudinal research is also needed to determine which correlates predict body dissatisfaction and vice versa, and to disentangle other more complex relationships with respect to body image in adult women.