Single keyboard organ vintage wurlitzer


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To say that Ken's hypocrisy is distinctive is an anzac. This would sit such a speed different for many times of information, away any registration with a wooden frequented and a rhythmic handles pattern such as the development of Ken's paperback exhibits.


The P was available as a set of eight on a folding frame, forming a portable wurlitzrr lab. They were attached by an umbilical to a full size teacher piano with controls to feature each pupil piano. This model appears to date from the early s and was available in orange or beige. Page McConnell, of the rock band Phish, is a prominent user of this model.

If the wurlihzer retards in plenty, there will be a violation of one note per second. In this time, we will use unanticipated cot waves to illustrate the evening of duty. Thou vibrato and serving may like simultaneously, and both sports best when they open between to many per traditional, or 6 to 7 months per traditional.

Other models[ edit ] Student Butterfly piano s with a pair of small wings. Later model Butterfly Baby Grand vintabe an electric piano version with a pedal. Spinet versions[ edit ] Since production began, small numbers of wood-cased spinet-style instruments were made for domestic use. These usually had an upright-piano style soft pedal actually an electronic attenuator as well as the sustain pedal.

Vintage Single keyboard wurlitzer organ

The mechanism of these pianos is identical keyboxrd that of the contemporary portable version. Before a Hammond organ can produce sound, the motor that drives the tonewheels must come up to speed. Oran most models, starting a Vihtage organ involves two switches. The "Start" switch turns a dedicated starter motor keybosrd, which must run for about 12 seconds. Then, the "Run" switch is turned on for about four seconds. The "Start" switch is then released, whereupon the organ is ready to orgab sound. This briefly cuts power to the generators, causing them to run at a slower pace and generate keyboare lower pitch for a short time.

Hammond's Wwurlitzer B3 contains similar switches Single keyboard organ vintage wurlitzer emulate this effect, though it is a digital instrument. The telharmonium used revolving electric kfyboard which generated tones that could be transmitted over wires. The instrument was bulky, because the alternators had to be large enough to generate high voltage wuglitzer a loud enough signal. The Hammond organ solved this problem by using an amplifier. Shipping and handling Wrlitzer seller has not specified a krgan method to Ukraine. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request shipping to your location. Shipping cost cannot be calculated.

Please enter a valid ZIP Code. United States No additional import charges at delivery! This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. A change up or down of as little as a few thousandths of an inch can make the tone sound more like a clarinet, or more like a cello as the timing between the spikes of each cycle of the wave change in time-phase relative to each other. Interestingly, these minute tonal variations are slightly different from one instrument to another because of minute differences in the adjustments of the pickups. Really careful analysis allows us to develop an audible "fingerprint" of a particular instrument.

This, by the way, confirms that the instrument which Ken played on the 67 Melody Lane TV show and on the Columbia LP by the same name is the same instrument. The adjustment of the pickups over the centers and the ends of the reeds is not quite as critical, as the shape of the electrical wave from these pickups is much simpler than that from the front edge pickups. On some of the reeds, the pickups are inserted into slots instead of round holes, so that they can be moved closer to the ends or closer to the centers of the reeds.

The motion of the reed strips at the centers is fairly simple, somewhat like, but not exactly the same as the motion of a pendulum. At the tips of the reeds, however, the motion is slightly more complex. The reed strips can flex a little near the free ends, almost like a ballet dancer flexes her wrists when simulating the motion of birds' wings, and therefore, from pickups that are closer to the tips of the reeds we get a strong second harmonic as well as traces of the next several higher harmonics. At the end of the Wurlitzer section of this article I have provided a set of pictures which illustrates the actual waveforms that are generated by the various pickups on several different reeds and gives you an idea of what the sounds "look like.

Notice in particular, the differences in the waveforms from the front edge pickups of two adjacent notes, Tenor B right below Middle C and Middle C itself. These are from our console. Actual waveforms observed from Ken's 67 Melody Lane record album appear very similar. There are numerous advantages to this system over the typical reed organ. As I previously mentioned, the tone of free reeds is not very nice to listen to. Furthermore, it is so distinctive that it is hard to make a reed organ or an accordion sound like anything but exactly that; a reed organ or an accordion. Furthermore, the speech characteristic of free reeds is very slow.

Originally, an electrostatic electronic organ using free reeds appeared on the scene in the 's. Known as the Orgatron, it had several sets of free reeds with pickups above the reeds. The reeds would remain at rest until keyed pneumatically by electromagnetic pallet valves under each reed. The instrument looked impressive, with a full-size AGO console and various stop tabs above the upper manual, but it was generally not a successful instrument at all. The lower pitched reeds spoke so slowly that it was virtually impossible to play either fast popular music or any classical music having an intricate pedal figure.

To make matters worse, when you let up on a lower pedal note, the reed continued to vibrate or ring mechanically for a disturbingly long time. This of course would generate no more direct acoustical sound, since the operating air was now cut off, but with the charging voltage always on the pickups of these early instruments, it would continue to produce an audio signal at the speakers, thereby making any semblance of pedal definition essentially unattainable. The soundproofing on the reeds of the early Orgatron instruments was also less than adequate, and a significant portion of the direct sound of each reed would emanate from the console and detract from the sounds from the speakers.

In fact, on these early Orgatron instruments, one could play audibly without even turning on the amplification system, in which case the instrument became simply an electrically powered reed organ, and a mighty heavy one at that. It also had the additional joy of a really noisy blower that sounded like a domestic oil-heating boiler on overload. Fortunately, very few of these relics remain in active service anymore, although I have seen a few in funeral parlors. This is probably not a problem, however, as the principal clients of funeral parlors are no longer in a position to hear or care how terrible the instrument is.

The Wurlitzer electrostatic organ of the type we describe here and that which Ken Griffin used was, at the very least, a second-generation descendent of the cumbersome and unmusical Orgatron and had none of its shortcomings. Since the reeds vibrate continuously, there is no lag time. Tones develop when the pickups over the reeds become charged with DC by pressing keys. Letting go of a key switches off the DC, and a discharge resistor bleeds the residual charge off very quickly, so any type of music can be played successfully. Soundproofing is very elaborate, so no reed or blower noise ever intrudes on the music, and the blower itself has an entirely different impeller configuration and is designed to operate very quietly.

It is also a much smaller blower than those which we find in the Orgatrons. In the typical Wurlitzer electrostatic organ, a high voltage direct current up to volts goes through a voltage divider to several busbars running the length of each manual and also the pedal key switch assembly. Under each key and pedal are several contact wires, which, when a key or pedal is depressed, make contact with these busbars. The busbars are made of insulating material however, but each has a nichrome wire running its length. The nichrome busbar wires connect to the aforementioned voltage divider. The busbars can rotate through about a sixty degree angle.

When a stop is off, the appropriate busbar is in such a position that the key contacts touch the insulating material and nothing happens. When a stop is on, however, the busbar rotates so that the nichrome wire is on the top. Then, pushing any key will allow the appropriate contact to touch the nichrome wire on the busbar, completing the circuit and allowing the DC voltage to enter the appropriate keying network for a particular pickup on the reed for the required pitch and tonality. The keying networks consist of resistors and capacitors.

keybozrd These are pedal keyers. The manual keyers are smaller, and the various components for each manual keyer are all encased in a housing called a couplate. The purpose of these networks is to "shape" the resulting build wurlitze and decay of each keyed tone, so that the tones build almost, but not quite, instantly, and also that vjntage tone may roll-off or decay, again, quickly but not instantly upon key release. This takes away the inherent "telegraph key" effect which was prevalent in many electronic organs of the period and makes the overall response more like that of a typical theater pipe organ. It also essentially eliminates key clicks. Unlike many other instruments of that period, the Wurlitzer electrostatics sound reasonably acceptable even without any reverberation effect.

Figure fifteen is a schematic of an actual keyer for a typical reed pickup and shows the small network of capacitors and resistors that govern the application and removal of the keying voltage from the pickup. We should now wurlitzrr another function of a capacitor, and that is its ability to store an electrical charge on its plates. For this purpose, we need to vintgae fixed or constant value capacitors. Typically, these consist of two plates made of metal foil with insulating sheets between, above and below them. To save space, vintags capacitor "sandwich" consisting of the two foils and the insulating sheets is rolled up into a small cylinder, and the whole is then sealed in plastic or some other protective insulating material.

A lead-in wire protrudes from each end of the sealed casing, each wire connected internally to one wulitzer the two rolled-up foils. Look vintaage at figure Single keyboard organ vintage wurlitzer of the keyers, where at the bottom of the picture, you see eighteen black plastic cylinders with colored bands painted on. These are some of Single keyboard organ vintage wurlitzer keyer capacitors, in this instance associated with the pedals. The colored bands are a code that identifies the value and value tolerance ratings of these capacitors.

When vkntage apply wulitzer DC keying voltage to a reed pickup, a small portion of that kyeboard causes a tiny, brief current to flow and charge the associated keying capacitor for that particular pickup. As this takes place, the voltage applied to the reed pickup likewise builds up quickly, but not instantly, since wurlitzfr capacitors are charged through resistors. A resistor is simply a device which slows or retards the flow of electric current. In the picture, the tiny cylinders directly above each capacitor are the resistors which serve to slow down or limit this keying current. At the same time, the tone gradually builds up in loudness until it reaches its maximum when the keying capacitor is fully charged.

The capacitor now begins to discharge through the resistor, which causes the voltage on the pickup to decrease gradually rather than to drop abruptly. This causes the signal from that particular reed pickup to decay correspondingly. In virtually all real non-electronic musical instruments, strings, reeds, struck bars, drumheads or gongs, or vibrating air columns, the stopping of a tone actually takes a slight amount of time as the vibration gradually, but not instantly, decreases. Even though this stopping may take place in only a few milliseconds, it nevertheless is not instantaneous, and it is what we come to expect of every musical sound, be it the horn on a diesel locomotive or a piano string.

The Wurlitzer electrostatic organ mimics this important characteristic in the manner that I have just described. Shortly after the introduction of the electrostatic organs, Wurlitzer developed a percussion sustain accessory, which was available either as an original factory installation or as a later retro-fit for all of the different versions of the Wurlitzer electrostatic organs with continuously running reeds. This device contained extra resistor-capacitor circuitry which could be switched into the keying circuits by multi contact relays to provide percussion sustain.

In this mode, the appropriate reed pickups would become charged very quickly when you played a key, but this charge would be held by the sustaining capacitors for several seconds after you let go of a key. As the charge was gradually bled off through the associated discharge resistors, the tones would then fade away or ring out gradually. The beauty of this reed system when used as a variable capacitive tone generator is that the strengths of the generated tones vary with the applied DC voltage. If you insert a means to make the voltage drain off slowly after you let go of a key, the generated tones will then decay gradually, creating sustain.

A second and related effect, which was introduced shortly after the sustain circuitry, consisted of a faster means of applying the voltage to each reed and keyer network. When in this mode, the electrostatic organ tones would begin percussively, somewhat, but not exactly, as those of a Hammond B3 with percussion on and at fast decay. This effect applied only to the flute tone pickups. Another interesting and musically enhancing effect is that of chorusing or celesting. They can be, and indeed they are, tuned very closely and very accurately, but they are all mechanically independent and unsynchronized. Additionally, each reed's electrical output waves contain true harmonics. Therefore, a subtle chorusing or celeste effect develops in the Wurlitzer electrostatic whenever two or more tones get played simultaneously.

This occurs not only through the minute tuning imperfections of the reeds, but also because of the difference between the pitches of the tempered notes of the musical scale and the true harmonics of the generated tones. Whenever the various slight tuning imperfections between the fundamentals and harmonics of the reeds interact with each other, this exactly parallels what happens in real acoustic musical instruments, choirs of singers, and orchestras where an infinite and constantly changing array of minute tuning imperfections exist all the time.

At some point during the production of these instruments, Wurlitzer made a major change in the layout of the reed unit and the blower location. The pictures which we show here are from the newer version. In the older version, the reed pans were stacked in two tiers, one over the other, and the blower was on the back of the reed unit. Since the whole assembly had to fit in the console, the blower was placed with its shaft at right angles to the keyboards, which meant that the blower motor had to drive the blower impeller by means of a right-angle gear assembly. This was an extra complication and also a source of mechanical noise.

Bythe reed unit had been redesigned to the configuration which we show in these pictures, with all the reed pans on the same level, and the blower assembly on the top. The blower is in line with the motor, which eliminates the need of a right-angle gear unit and its resulting noise and also its requirement for periodic lubrication, which, because of its location in the early version necessitated removal of the reed unit from the console.


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